articles

peer-reviewed publications

in press

Kipke, M. D., Kubicek, K., Akinyemi, I., Hawkins, W., Belzer, M., Bhandari, S., & Bray, B. C. (in press). The Healthy Young Men’s Cohort: Health, stress and risk profile of Black and Latino young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Journal of Urban Health.

Kong, J., Martire, L. M., Tate, A. M., Bray, B. C., & Almeida, D. M. (in press). Different types of childhood experience with mothers and caregiving outcomes in adulthood. Family Relations.

Surachman, A., Daw, J., Bray B. C., Alexander, L. M., Coe, C. L., & Almeida D. M. (in press). Heterogeneity of comorbidity among chronic kidney disease risk factors: Association with kidney function and prediction by childhood socioeconomic status. BMC Nephrology.

2020

Kendall, A. D., Young, C. B., Bray, B. C., Emerson, E. M., Freels, F., & Donenberg, G. (2020). Changes in externalizing and internalizing symptoms among African-American girls over one year following a mother-daughter sexual health intervention. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1037/ccp0000491 PMCID: In process

LoBraico, E. J., Bray, B. C., Feinberg, M., & Fosco, G. M. (2020). Constellations of family risk and long-term adolescent antisocial behavior. Journal of Family Psychology. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1037/fam0000640 PMCID: In process (abstract)

Patrick, M. E., Berglund, P. A., Joshi, S., & Bray, B. C. (2020). A latent class analysis of heavy substance use in young adulthood and impacts on physical, cognitive, and mental health outcomes in middle age. Drug and Alcohol Dependence. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2020.108018 PMCID: In process

Surachman, A., Rice, C. E., Bray B. C., Gruenewald, T. L., & Almeida D. M. (2020). Association between socioeconomic status mobility and inflammation markers among white and black adults in the United States: A latent class analysis. Psychosomatic Medicine, 82(2), 224-233. doi: 10.1097/PSY.0000000000000752 PMCID: PMC7007866 (abstract)

2019

Bray, B. C., Dziak, J. J., & Lanza, S. T. (2019). Age trends in alcohol use behavior patterns among U.S. adults ages 18-65. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 205, 107689. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2019.107689 PMCID: PMC6957076 (abstract)

Bray, B. C., Dziak, J. J., Patrick, M. E., & Lanza, S. T. (2019). Inverse propensity score weighting with a latent class exposure: Estimating the causal effect of reported reasons for alcohol use on problem alcohol use 16 years later. Prevention Science, 20(3), 394-406. doi: 10.1007/s11121-018-0883-8 PMCID: PMC6139077 (abstract)

Fitzpatrick, S. L., Brooks, N., Bray, B. C., & Stevens, V. J. (2019). Adherence to behavioral recommendations for weight loss and associated psychosocial factors among African American adults. Journal of Behavioral Medicine. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1007/s10865-019-00108-2 PMICD: In process (abstract)

Graupensperger, S., Benson, A. J., Bray, B. C., & Evans, M. B. (2019). Social cohesion and peer acceptance predict student-athletes’ attitudes toward health-risk behaviors: A within- and between-group investigation. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 22(12), 1280-1286. doi: 10.1016/j.jsams.2019.07.003 PMCID: PMC6825540 (abstract)

Guastaferro, K. M., & Bray, B. C. (2019). Substance use and mental health outcomes during emerging adulthood among individuals with different patterns of child maltreatment. Emerging Adulthood. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1177/2167696819830481 PMCID: In process

Kipke, M. D., Kubicek, K., Wong, C., Robison, Y. A., Akinyemi, D., Beyer, W., , Belzer, M. (2019). A focus on the HIV care continuum through the Healthy Young Men’s Cohort Study: Protocol for a mixed-methods study. Journal of Medical Internet Research – Research Protocols, 8(1), e10738. doi: 10.2196/10738 PMCID: PMC6365874 (abstract)

Maas, M. K., Bray, B. C., & Noll, J. G. (2019). Online sexual experiences predict subsequent sexual health and victimization outcomes among female adolescents: A latent class analysis. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 48(5), 837-849. doi: 10.1007/s10964-019-00995-3 PMCID: PMC7135936 (abstract)

Xia, M., Weymouth, B. B., Bray, B. C., Lippold, M. A., Feinberg, M. E., & Fosco, G. M. (2019). Exploring influence of triadic family relationship profiles on adolescents’ early substance initiation. Prevention Science. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1007/s11121-019-01081-7 PMCID: In process

2018

Bray, B. C., & Dziak, J. J. (2018). Commentary on latent class, latent profile, and latent transition analysis for characterizing individual differences in learning. Learning and Individual Differences, 66, 105-110. doi: 10.1016/j.lindif.2018.06.001 PMC Exempt – Not Peer-Reviewed (abstract)

Bray, B. C., Dziak, J. J., Patrick, M. E., & Lanza, S. T. (2018). Inverse propensity score weighting with a latent class exposure: Estimating the causal effect of reported reasons for alcohol use on problem alcohol use 16 years later. Prevention Science. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1007/s11121-018-0883-8 PMCID: PMC6139077 (abstract)

Fitzpatrick, S. L., Appel, L. J., Bray, B. C., Brooks, N., & Stevens, V. J. (2018). Predictors of long-term adherence to multiple health behavior recommendations for weight management. Health Education and Behavior. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1177/1090198118757823 PMCID: PMC6133769 (abstract)

Jacka, B., Bray, B. C., Applegate, T. L., Marshall, B. D. L., Lima, V. D., Hayashi, K., …, Grebely, J. (2018). Drug use and phylogenetic clustering of hepatitis C virus infection among people who use drugs in Vancouver, Canada: A latent class analysis approach. Journal of Viral Hepatitis, 25(1), 28-36. doi: 10.1111/jvh.12758 PMCID: PMC5743579 (abstract)

Maas, M. K., Bray, B. C., & Noll, J. G. (2018). A latent class analysis of online sexual experiences and offline sexual behaviors among female adolescents. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 28(3), 731-747. doi: 10.1111/jora.12364 PMCID: PMC5960611 (abstract)

Perzow, S. E. D., Bray, B. C., & Wadsworth, M. E. (2018). Financial stress response profiles and psychosocial functioning in low-income parents. Journal of Family Psychology, 32(4), 517-527. doi: 10.1037/fam0000403 PMCID: PMC5995125 (abstract)

Rivera, P. M., Bray, B. C., Guastaferro, K. M., Kugler, K. C., & Noll, J. G. (2018). Linking patterns of substance use with sexual risk-taking among female adolescents with and without histories of maltreatment. Journal of Adolescent Health, 62(5), 556-562. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2017.11.293 PMCID: PMC5930059 (abstract)

Rivera, P. M., Fincham, F. D., & Bray, B. C. (2017). Latent classes of maltreatment: A systematic review and critique. Child Maltreatment23(1), 3-24. doi: 10.1177/1077559517728125 PMCID: PMC5614894 (abstract)

Wang, D., Hagedorn, A. D., McLaughlin, D. K., & Bray, B. C. (2018). Change and stability of emotional health of rural Pennsylvania youth during high school. Journal of Rural Health, 34(3), 322-332. doi: 10.1111/jrh.12296 PMCID: PMC6021226 (abstract)

2017

Kim, B.-R., Chow, S.-M., Bray, B. C., & Teti, D. M. (2017). Trajectories of mothers’ emotional availability: Relations with infant temperament in predicting attachment security. Attachment and Human Development, 19(1), 38-57. doi: 10.1080/14616734.2016.1252780 PMCID: PMC5598772 (abstract)

Linden-Carmichael, A. N., Lanza, S. T., Dziak, J. J., & Bray, B. C. (2017). Contemporary alcohol use patterns among a national sample of U.S. adult drinkers. Journal of Addictive Diseases, 36(4), 222-226. doi: 10.1080/10550887.2017.1338816 PMCID: PMC565624 (abstract)

Longo, G. S., Bray, B. C., & Kim-Spoon, J. (2017). Profiles of adolescent religiousness using latent profile analysis: Implications for psychopathology. British Journal of Developmental Psychology35(1), 91-105. doi: 10.1111/bjdp.12183 PMCID: PMC5531039 (abstract)

Patrick, M. E., Terry-McElrath, Y. M., Schulenberg, J. E., & Bray, B. C. (2017). Patterns of high-intensity drinking among young adults in the United States: A repeated measures latent class analysis. Addictive Behaviors74(11), 134-139. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.06.004 PMCID: PMC5550283 (abstract)

Terry-McElrath, Y. M., O’Malley, P. M., Johnston, L. D., Bray, B. C., Patrick, M. E., & Schulenberg, J. E. (2017). Longitudinal patterns of marijuana use across ages 18-50 in a US national sample: A descriptive examination of predictors and health correlates of repeated measures latent class membership. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 171, 70-83. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2016.11.021 PMCID: PMC5263048 (abstract)

2016

Acheson, A., Lake, S. L., Bray, B. C., Liang, Y., Mathias, C. W., Ryan, S. R., … Dougherty, D. M. (2016). Early adolescent trajectories of impulsiveness and sensation seeking in children of fathers with histories of alcohol and other substance use disorders. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research40(12), 2622-2630. doi: 10.1111/acer.13235 PMCID: PMC5133168 (abstract)

Bray, B. C., Smith, R. A., Piper, M. E., Roberts, L. J., & Baker, T. B. (2016). Transitions in smokers’ social networks after quit attempts: A latent transition analysis. Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 18(12), 2243-2251. doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntw173 PMCID: PMC5103938 (abstract)

Charles, N. E., Ryan, S. R., Bray, B. C., Mathias, C. W., Acheson, A., & Dougherty, D. M. (2016). Altered developmental trajectories for impulsivity and sensation seeking among adolescent substance users. Addictive Behaviors60, 235-241. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2016.04.016 PMCID: PMC4904737 (abstract)

Dziak, J. J., Bray, B. C., Zhang, J.-T., Zhang, M., & Lanza, S. T. (2016). Comparing the performance of improved classify-analyze approaches for distal outcomes in latent profile analysis. Methodology: European Journal of Research Methods for the Behavioral and Social Sciences, 12(4), 107-116. doi: 10.1027/1614-2241/a000114 PMCID: In process (abstract)

Fosco, G. M., & Bray, B. C. (2016). Profiles of cognitive appraisals and triangulation into interparental conflict: Implications for adolescent adjustment. Journal of Family Psychology30(5), 533-542. doi: 10.1037/fam0000192 PMCID: PMC4980208 (abstract)

Halliburton, A. E., & Bray, B. C. (2016). Long-term prevalence and demographic trends in U.S. adolescent inhalant use: Implications for clinicians and prevention scientists. Substance Use and Misuse, 51(3), 343-356. doi: 10.3109/10826084.2015.1110169 PMC Exempt – Not NIH Funded (abstract)

Patrick, M. E., Bray, B. C., & Berglund, P. A. (2016). Reasons for marijuana use among young adults and long-term associations with marijuana use and problems. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs77(6), 881-888. doi: 10.15288/jsad.2016.77.881 PMCID: PMC5088171 (abstract)

Willner, C. J., Gatzke-Kopp, L. M., & Bray, B. C. (2016). The dynamics of internalizing and externalizing comorbidity across the early school years. Development and Psychopathology28(4pt1), 1033-1052. doi:10.1017/S0954579416000687 PMCID: In process (abstract)

2015

Bray, B. C., Lanza. S. T., & Tan, X. (2015). Eliminating bias in classify-analyze approaches for latent class analysis. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal22(1), 1-11. doi: 10.1080/10705511.2014.935265 PMCID: PMC4299667 (abstract)

Charles, N. E., Mathias, C. W., Acheson, A., Bray, B. C., Ryan, S. R., Lake, S. L., … Dougherty, D. M. (2015). Increased pre- and early-adolescent stress in youth with a family history of substance use disorder and early substance use initiation. Journal of Youth and Adolescence44(10), 1954-1967. doi: 10.1007/s10964-015-0271-7 PMCID: PMC4565755 (abstract)

Dougherty, D. M., Lake, S. L., Mathias, C. W., Ryan, S. R., Bray, B. C., Charles, N. E., & Acheson, A. (2015). Behavioral impulsivity and risk-taking trajectories across early adolescence in youth with and without family histories of substance use disorder. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 39(8), 1501-1509.doi: 10.1111/acer.12787 PMCID: PMC4630668 (abstract)

Ridenour, T. A., Halliburton, A., & Bray, B. C. (2015). Does DSM-5 nomenclature for inhalant use disorder improve upon DSM-IV? Psychology of Addictive Behaviors29(1), 211-217. doi: 10.1037/adb0000007 PMCID: PMC4333138 (abstract)

Zhang, J.-T., Bray, B. C., Zhang, M., & Lanza, S. T. (2015). Personality profiles and frequent heavy drinking in young adulthood. Personality and Individual Differences, 80, 18-21. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2015.01.054 PMCID: PMC4397499 (abstract)

2014

Acheson, A., Wijtenburg, S. A., Rowland, L. M., Bray, B. C., Gaston, F., Mathias, C. W., … Dougherty, D. M. (2014). Combining diffusion tensor imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy to study reduced frontal white matter integrity in youths with family histories of substance use disorders. Human Brain Mapping, 35(12), 5877-5887. doi: 10.1002/hbm.22591 PMCID: PMC4219410 (abstract)

Bray, B. C., Foti, R. J., Thompson, N. J., & Wills, S. F. (2014). Disentangling the effects of self leader perceptions and ideal leader prototypes on leader judgments using loglinear modeling with latent variables. Human Performance, 27(5), 393-415. doi: 10.1080/08959285.2014.956176 PMC Exempt – Not NIH Funded (abstract)

Bray, B. C., Lee, G. P., Liu, W., Storr, C. L., Ialongo, N. S., & Martins, S. S. (2014). Transitions in gambling participation during late adolescence and young adulthood. Journal of Adolescent Health, 55(2), 188-194.  doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2014.02.001 PMCID: PMC4108554 (abstract)

Lanza, S. T., Cooper, B. R., & Bray, B. C. (2014). Population heterogeneity in the salience of multiple risk factors for adolescent delinquency. Journal of Adolescent Health54(3), 319-325. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2013.09.007 PMCID: PMC3943167 (abstract)

2013

James, L. M., Mathias, C. W., Bray, B. C., Cates, S. E., Farris, S. J., Dawes, M. A., … Dougherty, D. M. (2013). Acquisition of rater agreement for the Stressful Life Events Schedule. Journal of Alcoholism and Drug Dependence1(5), 1-5. doi: 10.4172/2329-6488.10000124 PMC Exempt – Open Access (abstract)

Lanza, S. T., Tan, X., & Bray, B. C. (2013). Latent class analysis with distal outcomes: A flexible model-based approach. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal20(1), 1-26. doi: 10.1080/10705511.2013.742377 PMCID: PMC4240499 (abstract)

Smith, R. C., Coyle, P. T., Baldner, C., Bray, B. C., & Geller, E. S. (2013). A field investigation of perceived behavioral control and blood alcohol content: A pattern-oriented approach. Addictive Behaviors, 38(4)2080-2083. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2013.01.003 PMC Exempt – Not NIH Funded (abstract)

2012

Foti, R. J., Bray, B. C., Thompson, N. J., & Allgood, S. F. (2012). Know thy self, know thy leader: Contributions of a pattern-oriented approach to examining leader perceptions. The Leadership Quarterly, 23(4), 702-717. doi: 10.1016/j.leaqua.2012.03.007 PMC Exempt – Not NIH Funded (abstract)

Tisminetzky, M., Bray, B. C., Miozzo, R., Aupont, O., & McLaughlin, T. J. (2012). Classes of depression, anxiety and functioning in acute coronary syndrome patients. American Journal of Health Behavior, 36(1), 20-30. doi: 10.5993/AJHB.36.1.3 PMCID: PMC3704170 (abstract)

White, S. W., Bray, B. C., & Ollendick, T. H. (2012). Examining shared and unique aspects of social anxiety disorder and autism spectrum disorder using factor analysis. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders42(5), 874-884. doi: 10.1007/s10803-011-1325-7 PMC Exempt – Not NIH Funded (abstract)

2011

Mathias, C. W., Blumenthal, T. D., Dawes, M. A., Liguori, A., Richard, D. M., Bray, B. C., … Dougherty, D. M. (2011). Failure to sustain prepulse inhibition in adolescent marijuana users. Drug and Alcohol Dependence116(1-3), 110-116. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2010.11.020 PMCID: PMC30919502010 (abstract)

Tisminetzky, M., Bray, B. C., Miozzo, R., Aupont, O., & McLaughlin, T. J. (2011). Identifying symptom profiles of depression and anxiety in patients with an acute coronary syndrome using latent class and latent transition analysis. The International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, 42(2), 195-210. doi: 10.2190/PM.42.2.g PMCID: PMC3712857 (abstract)

White, S. W., Ollendick, T. H., & Bray, B. C. (2011). College students on the autism spectrum: Prevalence and associated problems. Autism15(6), 683-701. doi: 10.1177/1362361310393363 PMC Exempt – Not NIH Funded (abstract)

2010

Bray, B. C., Lanza, S. T., & Collins, L. M. (2010). Modeling relations among discrete developmental processes: A general approach to associative latent transition analysis. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal17(4), 541-569. doi: 10.1080/10705511.2010.510043 PMCID: PMC3094019 (abstract)

Davidson, J. E., Irizarry, M. C., Bray, B. C., Wetten, S., Galwey, N., Gibson, R., … Monsch, A. U. (2010). An exploration of cognitive subgroups in Alzheimer’s Disease. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 16(2), 233-243. doi: 10.1017/S1355617709991160 PMCID: PMC2903844 (abstract)

Lanza, S. T., & Bray, B. C. (2010). Transitions in drug use among high-risk women: An application of latent class and latent transition analysis. Advances and Applications in Statistical Sciences3(2), 203-236. PMCID: PMC3171700 (abstract)

2009

Koukounari, A., Webster, J. P., Donnelly, C. A., Bray, B. C., Naples, J., Bosompem, K., … Shiff, C. (2009). Sensitivities and specificities of diagnostic tests and infection prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium estimated from data on adults in villages northwest of Accra, Ghana. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 80(3), 435-441. PMCID: PMC27267882007 (abstract)

White, H. R., Bray, B. C., Fleming, C. B., & Catalano, R. F. (2009). Transitions into and out of light and intermittent smoking from adolescence into emerging adulthood. Nicotine and Tobacco Research11(2), 211-219. doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntn017 PMCID: PMC2658905 (abstract)

2007

Ridenour, T. A., Bray, B. C., & Cottler, L. B. (2007). Reliability of use, abuse, and dependence of four types of inhalants in adolescents and young adults. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 91(1), 40-49. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2007.05.004 PMCID: PMC2040516 (abstract)

2006

Bray, B. C., Almirall, D., Zimmerman, R. S., Lynam, D., & Murphy, S. A. (2006). Assessing the total effect of time-varying predictors in prevention research. Prevention Science, 7(1), 1-17. doi: 10.1007/s11121-005-0023-0 PMCID: PMC1479302 (abstract)

under review

Higuchi, C. H., Fonseca, L., Bray, B. C., Cogo-Moreira, H., Okuda, P., Ortiz, B. B., … Gadelha, A. (2019). The positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) as a group profile generator in Schizophrenia. Manuscript submitted for publication. [Schizophrenia Research]

Lydon-Staley, D. M., LoBraico, E. J., Bray, B. C., & Fosco, G. M. (2019). Conceptualizing the family context: Constellations of dispositional and family cohesion and conflict. Revised manuscript submitted for publication. [Journal of Family Psychology]

Weymouth, B. B., Fosco, G. M., Bray, B. C., & Feinberg, M. E. (2019). A latent profile analysis of co-occurring social anxiety symptoms and antisocial behavior: Implications for adolescent substance use. Revised manuscript submitted for publication. [Journal of Research on Adolescence]

under revision

Layland, E. K., Bray, B. C., & Kipke, M. D. (2019). Global and group-specific effects of stressful events and discrimination on substance use among young men of color who have sex with men. [new journal: Nicotine and Tobacco Research]

Maldonado-Molina, M. M., Bray, B. C., LoBraico, E. J., Estrada, Y., & Prado, G. (2018). Profiles of parental acculturation and stress on family-related communication and youth substance use initiation among Hispanic families. [new journal: Family and Community Health]

under contract

Bray, B. C., Collins, L. M., & Lanza, S. T. (in preparation). Latent class and latent transition analysis: With applications in the social, behavioral, and health sciences (Second Edition). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

by invitation

Bray, B. C., Berglund, P. A., Evans-Polce, R. J., & Patrick, M. E. (in preparation). A latent transition analysis of self-reported reasons for marijuana use during young adulthood. Special issue of Evaluation and The Health Professions.

Bray, B. C., Layland, E. K., & Lanza, S. T. (in preparation). Estimating the effects of a complex, multidimensional moderator: An example of latent class moderation to examine differential intervention effects of drug abuse services. Special issue of Prevention Science.

book chapters

Lanza, S. T., Schuler, M. S., & Bray, B. C. (2016). Latent class analysis with causal inference: The effect of adolescent depression on young adult substance use profile (Chp. 16, pp. 385-404). In W. Wiedermann & A. von Eye (Eds.), Causality and Statistics. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Lanza, S. T., Bray, B. C., & Collins, L .M. (2013). An introduction to latent class and latent transition analysis. In J. A. Schinka, W. F. Velicer, & I. B. Weiner (Eds.), Handbook of psychology (2nd ed., Vol. 2, pp. 691-716). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Ridenour, T. A., Bray, B. C., Scott, H. S., & Cottler, L. B. (2008). Classification and assessment of substance use disorders in adolescents. In C. A. Essau (Ed.), Adolescent addiction: Epidemiology, assessment, and treatment (Practical resources for the mental health professional). Burlington, MA: Academic Press.

technical reports

Bray, B. C., Lanza, S. T., & Tan, X. (2012). An introduction to eliminating bias in classify-analyze approaches for latent class analysis (Tech. Rep. No. 12-118). University Park, PA: The Methodology Center, The Pennsylvania State University.

Lanza, S. T., Tan, X., & Bray, B. C. (2011). A technical introduction: A model-based approach to latent class analysis with distal outcomes (Tech. Rep. No. 11-116). University Park, PA: The Methodology Center, The Pennsylvania State University.

Bray, B. C. (2008). Dissertation executive summary for “Examining gambling and substance use: Applications of advanced latent class modeling techniques for cross-sectional and longitudinal data” (Tech. Rep. No. 08-88). University Park, PA: The Methodology Center, The Pennsylvania State University.

Bray, B. C. (2005). Modeling the development of substance use and delinquency simultaneously: An associative latent transition analysis example (Tech. Rep. No. 05-72). University Park, PA: The Methodology Center, The Pennsylvania State University.

Bray, B. C., Zimmerman, R. S., Lynam, D., & Murphy, S. A. (2003). Assessing the total effect of time-varying predictors in prevention research (Tech. Rep. No. 03-59). University Park, PA: The Methodology Center, The Pennsylvania State University.

other publications

Wong, P., McAuslan, P., & Bray, B. C. (2000). Survey of problem gambling in the Metropolitan Detroit Area, 2000. Conducted under contract for the United Way Community Services.

software

Dziak, J. J., Bray, B. C., & Wagner, A. T. (2020). LCA_Covariates_3Step SAS macro users’ guide (Version 1.0). University Park, PA: The Methodology Center, Penn State. Retrieved from http://methodology.psu.edu

Dziak, J. J., Bray, B. C., & Wagner, A. T. (2017). LCA_Distal_BCH SAS macro users’ guide (Version 1.1). University Park: The Methodology Center, Penn State. Retrieved from http://methodology.psu.edu

Dziak, J. J., Yang, J., Tan, X., Bray, B. C., Wagner, A. T., & Lanza, S. T. (2017). LCA_Distal_LTB SAS macro users’ guide (Version 1.1). University Park: The Methodology Center, Penn State. Retrieved from http://methodology.psu.edu

Huang, L., Dziak, J. J., Bray, B. C., & Wagner, A. T. (2017). LCA_Distal_BCH Stata function users’ guide (Version 1.1). University Park: The Methodology Center, Penn State. Retrieved from http://methodology.psu.edu

Huang, L., Dziak, J. J., Bray, B. C., Wagner, A. T., & Lanza, S. T. (2017). LCA_Distal_LTB Stata function users’ guide (Version 1.0). University Park: The Methodology Center, Penn State. Retrieved from http://methodology.psu.edu

Dziak, J. D., Yang, J., Tan, X., Bray, B. C., Wagner, A. T., & Lanza, S. T. (2015). LCA distal SAS macro users’ guide (Version 3.0). University Park, PA: The Methodology Center, Penn State. Retrieved from http://methodology.psu.edu/downloads/distal

thesis and dissertation

Bray, B. C. (2007). Examining gambling and substance use: Applications of advanced latent class modeling techniques for cross-sectional and longitudinal data. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park. Received the National Council on Problem Gambling Outstanding Dissertation Award

Bray, B. C. (2005). Modeling the development of substance use and delinquency simultaneously: An associative latent transition analysis example. Unpublished master’s thesis, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park.